A process in which a 4D model (3D models with the added dimension of time) is utilized to effectively plan the phased occupancy in a renovation, retrofit, addition, or to show the construction sequence schedule update, workflow, space utilization and challanges on a building site. 4D modeling is a powerful visualization and communication tool that can give planner, designer, contractor, operator including the owner a better understanding of project milestones and live updates to avoid collision in same working area, to optimize cost and execution time schedule and  increase effictivity.

Potential Value:
  • Better understanding of the phasing schedule by the owner and project participants and showing risk buffers including Critical Path of the project
  • Risk analysis with mitigated or un-mitigated aspects
  • Dynamic phasing plans of occupancy offering multiple options and solutions to site space conflicts
  • Integrate planning of human, equipment, location and material resources with the BIM model to better schedule and cost estimate the projects
  • Space and workspace conflicts identified and resolved ahead of the construction process
  • Preliminary design assesment (black box) Early stage assumption of future elements allocation and proportions
  • Avoiding collision in same working area or to follow chronological steps, such as earthworks, sewage system, sleepers and then catenary masts
  • Control of quantity (removal, dispocal, intermidiate storage, reusage, incoming)
  • Optimize location vs. time as much as possible
  • Client has overview of planned vs. actual (real time) progress on site
  • Early implementation of Facility Management to contribute data for optimization.
  • Better method for tender/bidding procedure, and contractors will be able to see the complexity of individual task, and to influate the conditions (turnkey contracts)
  • Workshop for site planning with participants from all interface projects – optimizing Site Management
  • Marketing purposes and publicity
  • Weekly or regular Design update to project owner
  • Weekly or regular site update based on progress, which show planned progress vs. actual progress and result of remaining works (depend on units)
  • Animation showing execution possibilities (methods)
  • Identification of schedule, sequencing or phasing issues
  • More readily constructible, operable and maintainable project
  • Monitor procurement status of project materials
  • Increased productivity and decreased waste on job sites
  • Conveying the spatial complexities of the project, planning information, and support conducting additional analyses 
Resources Required:
  • Design Authoring Software
  • Scheduling software
  • 4D Modeling Software required by the project owner
  • Define a Common Data Environment platform for every phase and aggrements accross interface projects to use software and tools, that meets requirements from masterplanner
  • Implementation of the International Infrastructure standards
  • Unlimited access to traffic planning and bindings including collaboration between them.
  • Intervidually determine LOD for each deliverance (discipline)
  • Site map/logistics planning
Team Competencies Required:
  • FM expertise must be included from early stage
  • Knowledge of construction scheduling and general construction process. A 4D model is connected to a schedule, and is therefore only as good as the schedule to which it is linked
  • Ability to manipulate, navigate, analyse, share and review a 3D model
  • Qualified employee appointed in early stage to define execution methods (best practise)
  • Knowledge of 4D software: import geometry, manage links to schedules, produce and control animations, appearence visibility, workflow, scripting etc.
Proces diagram:
A flowchart depicting the BIM use “Scheduling”